Water And Wastewater Technology Hammer Pdf 21
Abstract:Constructed wetlands (CWs) for wastewater treatment are engineered systems that are designed and operated in order to use all natural processes involved in the removal of pollutants from wastewaters. CWs are designed to take advantage of many of the same processes that occur in natural wetlands, but do so within a more controlled environment. The basic classification is based on the presence/absence of wastewater on the wetland surface. The subsurface flow of CWs can be classified according to the direction of the flow to horizontal and vertical. The combination of various types of CWs is called hybrid CW. The CWs technology began in the 1950s in Germany, but the major extension across the world occurred during the 1990s and early 2000s. The early CWs in Germany were designed as hybrid CWs; however, during the 1970s and 1980s, horizontal subsurface flow CWs were mostly designed. The stricter limits for nitrogen, and especially ammonia, applied in Europe during the 1990s, brought more attention to vertical subsurface flow and hybrid systems. Constructed wetlands have been used to treat various types of wastewater, including sewage, industrial and agricultural wastewaters, various drainage and runoff waters and landfill leachate. Recently, more attention has also been paid to constructed treatment wetlands as part of a circular economy in the urban environments: it is clear that CWs are a good fit for the new concept of sponge cities.Keywords: constructed wetlands; macrophytes; pollution; wastewater
water and wastewater technology hammer pdf 21
Abstract:The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal). In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.Keywords: constructed wetlands; macrophytes; nutrients; organics; wastewater
Secondary treatment systems are classified as fixed-film or suspended-growth systems A great number of secondary treatment processes exist, see List of wastewater treatment technologies. The main ones are explained below.
The cost of building and operating an MBR is often higher than conventional methods of sewage treatment. Membrane filters can be blinded with grease or abraded by suspended grit and lack a clarifier's flexibility to pass peak flows. The technology has become increasingly popular for reliably pretreated waste streams and has gained wider acceptance where infiltration and inflow have been controlled, however, and the life-cycle costs have been steadily decreasing. The small footprint of MBR systems, and the high quality effluent produced, make them particularly useful for water reuse applications.
Aerated lagoons are a low technology suspended-growth method of secondary treatment using motor-driven aerators floating on the water surface to increase atmospheric oxygen transfer to the lagoon and to mix the lagoon contents. The floating surface aerators are typically rated to deliver the amount of air equivalent to 1.8 to 2.7 kg O2/kWh. Aerated lagoons provide less effective mixing than conventional activated sludge systems and do not achieve the same performance level. The basins may range in depth from 1.5 to 5.0 metres. Surface-aerated basins achieve 80 to 90 percent removal of BOD with retention times of 1 to 10 days. Many small municipal sewage systems in the United States (1 million gal./day or less) use aerated lagoons.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined secondary treatment based on the performance observed at late 20th-century bioreactors treating typical United States municipal sewage. Secondary treated sewage is expected to produce effluent with a monthly average of less than 30 mg/L BOD and less than 30 mg/L suspended solids. Weekly averages may be up to 50 percent higher. A sewage treatment plant providing both primary and secondary treatment is expected to remove at least 85 percent of the BOD and suspended solids from domestic sewage. The EPA regulations describe stabilization ponds as providing treatment equivalent to secondary treatment removing 65 percent of the BOD and suspended solids from incoming sewage and discharging approximately 50 percent higher effluent concentrations than modern bioreactors. The regulations also recognize the difficulty of meeting the specified removal percentages from combined sewers, dilute industrial wastewater, or Infiltration/Inflow.